“Gut microbiota of humans and animals consists of a complex set of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts. Many of the mare beneficial bacteria that utilize hard-to-digest foods, produce nutrients and energy, and protect the hosts from food-borne pathogens. Pathogens, or harmful bacteria, also reside in the digestive tracts; they release toxins and are increasingly associated with a series of diseases. Therefore, a balance of beneficial and harmful bacteria contributes to human and animal health. In fact, many types of bacteria are competing in the gut, and the winners have potential to cause health problems in the host. The term “probiotics” was introduced by Parker (1974) to describe organisms and substances that contribute to intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are vital culture of bacteria and fungi that, when introduced through feed, have a positive effect on health. According to FAO/WHO, probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when consumed in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”.
(T.H. Nguyen and V.D. Nguyen (2017): Characterization and Applications of Marine Microbial Enzymes in Biotechnology and Probiotics for Animal Health. In: Se-Kwon Kim and Fidel Toldrá, editors, Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Vol. 80, Burlington: Academic Press, pp. 37-74. ISBN: 978-0-12-809587-4. Read the Book.)